In this section, we present synthetic examples to illustrate forward modelling and inversion capabilities of
MAG3D v5.0. Important functionalities of
MAG3D v5.0 are parallelization, the ability to handle borehole data, an increased freedom in the design of the model objective function, a faster procedure for incorporating constraints (using projected gradients), and the ability to check the accuracy of the wavelet compression for large scale problems. The synthetic examples described below are constructed to show these features. They are based on a synthetic model, which consists of a 500 meter susceptible cube in a half space, placed 300 m below the flat surface (Fig. 5.1). Surface and multi-component borehole data are simulated. The examples can be downloaded directly from here (14 MB)
5.6.1. Forward modelling¶
The surface data set consists of 2,091 evenly gridded data 60 meters Easting by 75 meters Northing (see Fig. 5.1). The total-field anomaly was calculated at an inclination of \(65^\circ\) and declination of \(25^\circ\) with a field strength of 50,000 nT.
In order run in this example, the following was put into the command line:
magfor3d mesh.txt loc_surf.txt model.sus
We next simulated the borehole data. The borehole data are calculated in three vertical holes located 500 meters apart east-west (Fig. 5.1) with a depth interval of 20 meters for a total of 594 data. Each borehole accommodates 51 three-component measurements covering depth interval from 15 to 1,335 meters below surface. The command used to compute the simulated borehole data was:
magfor3d mesh.txt loc_bh.txt model.sus
The simulated data have been contaminated with Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 3 nT plus 2% of the data. The noisy surface data are shown in Fig. 5.2. Figure Fig. 5.3 shows the accurate and noisy borehole data.
We illustrate the inversion of the surface data and then a joint inversion of surface and borehole data.
188.8.131.52. Default parameters¶
First, the distance weighting function is calculated with PFWEIGHT. Distance weighting was chosen for consistency between the inversion of surface data and joint inversion of the surface and borehole data (borehole data require distance weighting). The input for the weighting function code is shown below. An example of the created log file is presented in Fig. 5.4.
Next, the sensitivity matrix is calculated with MAGSEN3D. The default wavelet compression parameters are used (
daub2 with 5% reconstruction error (
eps=0.05). We also choose not to output diagnostic parameters, although these are discussed in the Wavelet diagnostic output section. With this scenario chosen, outputs and (these files will be over-written if the program has been run in the same folder more than once without re-naming them). The former file gives the user information about the sensitivity calculation such as compression ratio with the wavelet transform. The latter file will be required during the inversion process. The sensitivity will only have to be re-run if the mesh or data locations are changed. Changing the standard deviations does not require a new
.mtx file. The log file from the sensitivity calculation is shown in Fig. 5.5. The input file given to is shown below.
Once the matrix file is created, the inversion can be run by with a general input file. The control file example is provided below. The bounds are set to so positivity is enforced. Therefore, the initial model is set slightly above zero so that the entire model is included in the first iteration. The initial model is also usually set to the reference model so the reference model is set slightly above zero.
The inversion converges in four iterations. Fig. 5.6 shows the convergence curve for the data misfit versus the iteration number. The desired misfit is approximately 2100 and is achieved within the tolerance given (\(\pm2\%\)). The predicted data from the recovered model is shown on the right of Fig. 5.7 with the observed data on the right for comparison.
An example log file created by within this example set (borehole and surface data) is shown in Fig. 5.8. The file gives the input parameters and general information for every iteration such as the data misfit and iteration CPU time. A developers log (
maginv3d.out) is also written (Figure [fig:developlog]). This file contains detailed information for every iteration including the beta parameter, data misfit, model norm and its components, total objective function, number of conjugate gradient iterations, and the number of truncated cells. The latter is the amount of cells that are at or beyond the bounds and are not included in the minimization with the projected gradient. In this case, it would be cells at or below zero that were set to zero.
A slice of the recovered model through the centre of the anomalous body is presented in Fig. 5.10 (top). The recovered anomaly has smaller amplitude and is smoothed relative to the true model. The two boreholes that do not intersect the anomaly are then added. The data are inverted with the same parameters as previously given for the surface-only example and achieves the appropriate data misfit. The recovered model is shown in Fig. 5.10 (middle). The anomalous body is tighter and a bit more constrained with the addition of subsurface data. Finally, data from the third borehole that intersects the anomaly are added to the observed data. An interesting observation from the recovered model (Fig. 5.10 ; bottom) is the lack of magnetic susceptibility where the borehole is physically located.
There are two different types of constraints that can be used in order to recover an anomalous body near the borehole that physically intersects it. Those types are soft or hard constraints. Soft constraints are applied through the model objective function and hard constraints are provided through active and inactive cells, and bounds. The following two sections apply each one of these types of constraints, respectively, in order to alleviate this problem.
184.108.40.206. Use of soft constraints¶
One type of constraints that can be used to connect the body for a more realistic interpretation is soft constraints. We examine both the use of distance weighting and the reference model through the model objective function.
220.127.116.11.1. Distance weighting¶
Distance weighting is utilized to avoid placing susceptible cells near the observation locations where the mesh has a higher sensitivity and can bias the final solution. We therefore manually change the \(R_o\) in the distance weighting in the input file from the default value of \(1/4\) of a cell to 100 - much larger than what is needed. Since the values are then normalized, this will allow susceptible material near the borehole locations. The \(\alpha\) value should be 3.0 due to the field decay to a cubic power. The sensitivity and inversion input files stay the same. The weighting input file for this example is
The inversion is run with all three boreholes and surface data. A slice of the recovered model is shown in Figure [fig:all_ro]. The recovered model has a single anomaly as desired. The anomaly is near the true susceptibility (0.01 SI) and has a block-like shape. A by-product of using this weighting is that the algorithm is able to place susceptibility not only near the borehole locations, but also near surface observations. To improve upon the results, we examine the use of the reference model with this weighting in order to centralize the anomalous susceptibility.
18.104.22.168.2. Reference model¶
As previously discussed in the inversion methodogy, the reference model can either be incorporated into the spatial derivatives or only the smallest model component of the model objective function. We use the MAGSEN3D input file from distance weighting and examine the differences in the recovered model with the addition of the reference model.
The centre borehole intersects the anomaly so we assume that we know the true model at the location of those subsurface observations. The reference model is then designed so that everywhere else it promotes a zero model. A cross section of the reference model is shown in Fig. 5.12 (top). Only the cells that the borehole intersects the anomaly are given as susceptibilities over zero.
The input file for the inversion with the reference model throughout model objective function is shown below. The initial model is the same as the reference model and the choice
SMOOTH_MOD_DIF is invoked in order to place the reference model in the spatial derivatives.
The recovered model is found in Fig. 5.12 (middle). There is a single anomaly with the maximum amplitude where the non-zero portion of the reference model influenced the solution. The surrounding part of the body goes to zero to try to minimize the difference spatially leaving a strip where the non-zero part of the reference model is located. In this light, the affects of penalizing the derivatives with the reference model included become apparent.
Next, the input file for the inversion is changed so that the option
SMOOTH_MOD is used in order to place the reference model only in the smallest component of the model objective function. A cross section of the recovered model with this option is presented in Fig. 5.12 (bottom). This time the recovered anomaly is much more homogeneous and is closer to the true model throughout the body. The solution is similar to just the distance weighting, though it recovers higher susceptibilities and does not decrease in amplitude as much within the anomalous volume.
22.214.171.124. Use of hard constraints¶
The last section discussed the flexibility of the model objective function to influence the result of MAGINV3D. This section examines the use of hard constraints that strictly enforce a range of values rather than promote the values mathematically. We first incorporate bound constraints and then set key cells to be inactive within the inversion.
126.96.36.199.1. Bounds cells¶
To be able to appropriately bound the model, we examine the susceptibility given by the borehole information. The bound model file is two columns and requires a lower and upper bound, respectively. For the lower bound, we set the model to zero everywhere but the intersection of the anomaly with the centre borehole. The true model is observed here, so we set the bounds in this region to 0.0099 - just below the 0.01 of the anomalous body (Fig. 5.13 ; top). The upper bounds are 1 (i.e. positivity only) everywhere but in the locations of the zero susceptibility found in the boreholes. This model can be found in Fig. 5.13 (bottom). These two models create the bounds file. We use the same reference model from the soft constraints section. The reference model is only incorporated in the smallest model component of the model objective function. The input file for the inversion with bounds is
and a cross section of the recovered model is found in Fig. 5.13 (bottom). The bounds force the model to the correct 0.01 SI values where the centre borehole intersects the anomalous body, to zero where the boreholes do not intersect any susceptibility, and allows the rest of the model to change as necessary. This results in large values in the centre of the anomaly with smoothly decaying amplitudes towards the outsides of the body. The shape is still correctly recovered.
188.8.131.52.2. Active/inactive cells¶
An added functionality of MAGINV3D is the ability to set cells to a prescribed value and not to incorporate them directly into the inversion. For this example, the model cells in the boreholes are set to inactive. This means they will stay the value given in the initial model and will not be part of the model objective function (they will contribute to the produced data of the solution). For this example, we set the active cells with values of 1 near the boreholes where the inversion will solve for susceptibility. The cells intersecting the boreholes where susceptibility is known is set to \(-1\) in order to influence the model objective function, yet set the cell values. The cells outside the region of interest and that we know have no anomalous susceptibility are set to \(0\) (also inactive) and are not included within the inversion. Fig. 5.14 (top) is a cross section of the active cell model. The reference model determines the cell values within the inactive region so the file
reference.sus is used. An initial model using the reference model is also set. The inversion input file for this example is
The recovered model is shown in Fig. 5.14 (bottom). The centre of the anomaly has the expected value of 0.01 (it was not part of the inversion) and the surrounding susceptibility expands to the region of the true anomalous body continuously due to keeping the reference model in the smallest model component of the model objective function. Active cells can improve the inversion when prior information is available.
5.6.3. Wavelet diagnostic tests¶
In this section, we discuss two approaches to try to understand the influence of the wavelet compression on the recovered model. The diagnostic test output from is first examined. Then, we show how to perform similar experiments through the combination of ref:magfor3d and MAGPRE3D.
184.108.40.206. Running magsen3d diagnostic test tool¶
In order to run the diagnostic test via MAGSEN3D, a
1 is given on the bottom line of the input file. The weighting code is run prior to the sensitivity and the sensitivity matrix output can be used (as if the test was not run) in the inversion. It should be noted that the testing can require up to twice the CPU time compared to running the sensitivity matrix calculation alone. Once the diagnostic testing begins, the user may decide to stop the code. In that case, the testing files are not output yet the matrix file has been written and the inversion process can proceed. An example input file for the sensitivity calculation with testing is
The standard outputs of running are the sensitivity matrix file (
maginv3d.mtx), the average sensitivity for each cell (
sensitivity.txt), and the log file (
magsen3d.log). The average sensitivity for each cell is a model file and can be viewed in meshTools3D. The average sensitivity is calculated from the full, non-compressed sensitivity. Running the diagnostic test performs this calculation on the compressed sensitivity and outputs the file
sensitivity_compressed.txt. The true compression error is also given in the log file with this setting to be able to compare to the given compression error tolerance (e.g.
Examining how the two average sensitivity models differ can give insight on how well the wavelet compression has performed. The general shape should be the same, but large jumps in cell size can create large differences, which will be observed with the two outputs. Fig. 5.15 (top) shows a cross-section of the uncompressed sensitivity average for the block example given in this manual. The same cross-section for the compressed average sensitivity for a 5% reconstruction error is presented in Fig. 5.15 (middle). In general, the compression shows good accuracy. The difference between the two models is given in Fig. 5.15 (bottom) for reference. All of the pictures are shown in log scale.
The data from the compressed and uncompressed sensitivity given a constant model of 0.01 is also written, aptly named
data_uncompressed.txt respectively. This also gives insight to the differences in column-based integration of the compressed and uncompressed sensitivity matrix. However, the model output is much more intuitive.
220.127.116.11. Recovered model-based diagnostic test¶
Users of the package often are curious how the wavelet transform is affecting the predicted data. Although the diagnostic test does this calculation on a constant model of 0.1, this test is actually easy to perform once the inversion code has a solution. The
maginv3d_xxx.pre is the predicted data for the compressed sensitivity and can also be calculated with the code given a file and a recovered model. To obtain the predicted data for an uncompressed sensitivity matrix, run MAGFOR3D on the recovered model,
maginv3d_xxx.sus. The difference between the generated data sets will show how the wavelet compression is affecting the final data. Large discrepancies in the data may suggest the use of a smaller reconstruction error given on the
eps line of the sensitivity input file. An example is shown using the surface-only data set. The two data sets for the uncompressed, compressed sensitivity matrix, and their difference is respectively shown in Fig. 5.16. The maximum difference between the two data sets less than is 1 nT.